The third was the victory of the Ethereum network, because this Thursday, February 28, the bifurcation of Constantinople and St. Petersburg was activated in the main network. The network updates came on stream from the 7,280,000 block, as planned.
The activation of the bifurcation of Constantinople and St. Petersburg occurred around 4 pm (GMT -4) and brought four changes to the protocol. Each change is presented as an improvement proposal (EIP) and identified by numbers. One of the proposals that came into effect in Ethereum with Constantinople is EIP 145, which "adds native functionality to the protocol" in order to allow certain operations in the chains are easier and cheaper to execute.
EIP 145 is added to EIP 1014, which will facilitate "interaction with addresses that have not yet been created"; EIP 1052, which will make it more economical to execute certain processes on smart contracts using a new OP code; and EIP 1234, which proposes the activation delay in the difficulty pump until the Participation Test (PoS) is implemented, as well as the reduction of the rewards block by mines.
The changes you make make the network incompatible with earlier versions. This means that network participants – such as pools mining, node operators, independent miners, among others – who do not upgrade their nodes, will be disconnected from the new version. On the other hand, users of foreign exchange houses; cold bags, web or apps; miners working in pools; among others, they do not need to make updates to be compatible with the new Ethereum.
The possible disconnection of the nodes to the new chain opens the doors to the possible creation of another encryption, as in 2016, when nodes that did not adopt the changes caused a fork in the chain and were renamed to Ethereum Classic. However, the developers of Ethereum have rejected the possibility of generating another cryptoactive.
Currently, over 60% of the Ethereum nodes were updated to activate Constantinople, according to developer Igor Artamonov. It should be noted that ethnodes.org states that this number is 21%, however, multiple ecosystem members they ensure that this platform does not display information from all nodes in the network nor distinguish between the different Ethereum networks.
Three activation attempts
Constantinople and St Petersburg, originally only Constantinople, were activated after two postponements. At the first opportunity, in October 2018, they postponed the activation of fork after encountering code failures and running on the test network.
On the second occasion, the developers decided to cancel the update unexpectedly for a bug (error in code) discovered. The mistake, on this occasion, permission to perform re-entry attacks, through which potential attackers could perform indefinitely a function of an intelligent contract. This failed version was updated by several Ethereum miners and 10% of hash rate He was running the wrong version of Constantinople.
Finally, the developers chose the 7,280,000 block to activate the bifurcation. So far there are no known failures caused by network changes.
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