What will the astronauts use on Mars and the Moon?



[ad_1]

today 11am

SpaceX wants to send astronauts to Mars. Billionaire Jeff Bezos at least to the moon. But what will they use there?

Nearly 60 years have passed since a man's first flight into the cosmos, and not just space technologies, but also space suits to protect astronauts out of the open space, have greatly improved. No one wants the blood in his veins to turn into gas before he can say anything about the small steps for man and the great steps for humanity.

the beginnings

NASA's first space suit was developed for the Mercury project, whose goal was to get the Americans into Earth's orbit and ensure they were back alive and healthy. The first cosmonauts actually had difficulty with them, and it took several years to break the thermoregulation defects – their suits were alternately sweaty, completely frozen, and unable to sleep. The second generation of space suits was developed for the Gemini project. They had to be considerably more resilient because they were being prepared in order to allow them to rise in the open space. Third generation facts have already been designed for those who were about to conquer the Apollo Moon.

They had to allow plenty of free movement so they could not just walk, but also fold and collect samples. Directly in the body, the astronauts had a water-cooled nylon shell, a multi-layered space suit. The undercoat was a lightweight nylon with ventilation holes, a medium nylon coated neoprene to protect the layers underneath. Then, five layers of aluminized mylar were interlaced with four layers of additional dacron technical material. The insulation of the two layer capton took care of the retention of heat. Teflon coated non-flammable fabric, which prevented mechanical damage, was followed by a pure white teflon. The Americans in this costume walked gently on the surface of the moon. Although I weighed 111 pounds with oxygen supplies, this did not mean much in weightlessness.

Another type of space suit had to develop for the space shuttle. While almost all previous suits were silver or white, this time they chose an atypical orange. They just called it "pumpkin space suit." This should protect the crew, especially in the event of failure at the start or landing.

First: Cosmonaut Gordon Cooper in the Mercury space suit of the second half of the 50's.

First: Cosmonaut Gordon Cooper in the Mercury space suit of the second half of the 50's.

Source: NASA

Freedom of movement

NASA is currently testing new-type space suits in its Advanced Spacesuit and Technology Labe, which should weigh only half and, above all, allow operators to have almost complete freedom of movement – this is a fundamental requirement for their new generation . So far, the initial tests have been done with prototypes known as the Z series. In terms of design, they definitely will not be conservative, but not very aesthetic.

Production: BioSuit has been in development since 2004.

Production: BioSuit has been in development since 2004.

Source: Archive

brand

Private companies are more interested in the aesthetics of space suits. They should be designed not just for astronauts but also for space tourists willing to pay hefty hundreds of thousands of dollars for a trip to the universe. So such a trip should look like a show and space suits – in this case, space suits – should match that. Millionaire Virgin Galactic by Richard Branson has simple – the rides he plans are suborbital, tourists will stay on the ship all the time, so they do not need pressurized space suits. It was enough to connect them with the Under Armor brand, which would design their first space collection for them. Suggestions at the time of writing this article are not yet known, but both companies are planning to submit them this year.

Science Fiction: This is one of SpaceX's private spacesuits.

Science Fiction: This is one of SpaceX's private spacesuits.

Source: Archive

pressurized

A more complex task is facing Boeing and SpaceX. Both have an agreement with NASA that their modules will not only supply the ISS space station, but may also carry astronauts there. None of them even tested the crew module. More precisely, SpaceX, a few weeks ago without a live team, succeeded, but exploded in other tests that occurred after the smooth return to Earth. However, both companies are developing new types of pressurized space suits for their crew modules, which must meet NASA's most stringent safety standards.

Space suits that they develop should be able to protect passengers during interplanetary flights, but they are not designed to protect them from extreme conditions such as those on the surface of Mars. That is why the "clothing" suits designed to move to the surface are large and bulky. They should contain air that will put enough pressure on the body to function and protect it from the risk of vacuum.

Collaboration: Armor founder Kevin Plank on the left and Virgin Galactic chief Richard Branson agreed to develop space suits together at the end of January this year. I will show my first proposals in the second half of the year.

Collaboration: Armor founder Kevin Plank on the left and Virgin Galactic chief Richard Branson agreed to develop space suits together at the end of January this year. I will show my first proposals in the second half of the year.

Source: Virgin Galactic

High tech fashion

Scientists led by professor of aerospace engineering systems Dave J. Newman looked at the problem differently. They decided to use cutting-edge materials to create a super-elastic costume capable of putting pressure on the muscles. The advantage of such a solution is unequivocal – in the event of mechanical damage to a pressurized space suit, your user is at risk of life, he must arrive at the safety of the landing module or spacecraft as quickly as possible. In the event of mechanical damage to the elastic clothing, it is sufficient that a special tape is repaired and can continue to move on the surface.

It is not easy to develop such clothing because it should fit perfectly with the body and all its folds. The prototype, which was fully functional, was already completed in 2013. Its development continues, but it looks more like the more conventional designed suits, such as those used today by astronauts to launch into the open space of the International Space. spacial station.

Z2: This is one of the design ideas for NASA's 2015 space suits, designed for outdoor movement.

Z2: This is one of the design ideas for NASA's 2015 space suits, designed for outdoor movement.

Source: NASA / Bill Stafford

[ad_2]

Source link