The international context: Act faster and raise the level of ambition!
The Paris agreement, adopted unanimously on December 12, 2015, is the basis of global climate action. At the heart of this agreement is the goal of keeping global warming well below 2 ° C compared to pre-industrial levels, and continue efforts to limit it to 1.5 ° C.
The recent report by the IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) illustrates the scale of the challenge and the urgency to act: only the halving of global greenhouse gas emissions by 2030 (compared to the current level), followed by climate neutrality in 2050, will limit global warming to 1.5 ° C.
There is now a broad scientific and political consensus that current contributions, including those of the European Union (EU), are insufficient and point to accelerating and irremediable global warming, exceeding the threshold of 2 ° C by 2060.
The EU has already made a political commitment to increase its contribution to the Paris Agreement by 2020 in the next decade and to work towards achieving greenhouse gas emissions. net by 2050. Member States will therefore have to go beyond the emission reduction targets set by the existing legislative framework.
This political commitment is motivated by the IPCC's conclusion that the objectives of the Paris Agreement can still be met subject to rapid, determined and consistent action in all areas. In addition, there are numerous studies on the costs of inaction, concluding that the longer governments wait, the greater the economic burden.
Strong commitment at national level
Under the new coalition agreement, the government decided to "make every effort to comply with this agreement [de Paris] and take into account the findings of the IPCC Special Report 1.5 ° C ".
It is within this framework that the development of National Integrated Energy and Climate Plan for the period 2021-2030, as provided for in Regulation (EU) No 2018/1999 on the governance of the Energy and Climate Action Union.
Through its integrated national plan, each Member State will have to national targets for renewable energy, energy efficiency and greenhouse gas emissions by 2030and illustrate policies and measures to achieve those goals.
Member States shall submit to the the final version with detailed measures and values for December 31, 2019.
Bearing in mind the inauguration of the new government, the new government agreement and the interministerial consultations that followed, the Luxembourg Government submitted its draft plan on 13 February 2019 to the European Commission.
Improving energy efficiency and promoting renewable energy sources are the cornerstones of Luxembourg's climate policy and the energy transition.
- A goal responsible for CO2 reduction
In terms of reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, one between 50% and 55% in 2030 compared to 2005 is included in the outline of the plan. This objective concerns sectors not covered by the EU Emissions Trading Scheme (EU ETS) and takes into account the zero emissions net objective by 2050.
This commitment is necessary because studies show that the current EU emission reduction target of 40% by 2030 needs to be increased to 55% to ensure compatibility with the Paris Agreement.
The objective will be achieved by strengthening efforts to improve energy efficiency and promote renewable energy.
- A policy of continuous reduction in the sale of fuels
Given that greenhouse gas emissions are currently dominated by two thirds by the road transport sector, a steady decline in road fuel sales will be inevitable. Under the Coalition Agreement, "the taxation of petroleum products (fuels and fuel oil) must be adjusted in order to achieve the objectives agreed by Luxembourg under the Paris agreements". The additional revenue generated by an increase in excise duty on fuel will be largely attributed to the climate and energy fund and focused on alternative financing.
Stronger promotion of public transport and active mobility will also help to limit emissions in the transport sector as well as the future Community legislative framework setting the CO2 performance standards for cars and passenger cars. light commercial vehicles (final commitment maintaining reductions of 37.5% and 31% respectively in 2030 compared to 2021) as well as for heavy goods vehicles (final commitment maintaining a reduction of 30% in 2030 compared to 2020 ).
- New mobility: promotion of public transport and electricity
The government's objective of sustainable mobility in all areas, common enhanced promotion of public transport, active mobility and the development of electromobility; solutions such as the tram, free public transportation from 2020 or the national expansion of the recharging infrastructure will help achieve the goal of energy efficiency.
O new incentives for electromobility effective as of January 1, 2019 support this proactive and targeted approach.
Moreover, as set out in the coalition agreement, "business-level actions will have to be intensified, emphasizing the effectiveness of the measures in relation to costs."
- Leadership in energy efficiency of buildings
In terms ofenergy efficiency, a reduction in final energy demand from 40% to 44% by 2030 compared to the 2007 EU PRIMES reference is included in the draft plan. This objective assumes that, as opted in recent years, Luxembourg continues to pursue a committed energy efficiency policy at all levels. Among others, in the field of new buildingsLuxembourg is at the forefront of transposing the energy performance requirements of residential buildings with almost zero dissociation between population growth and CO2 emissions.
To achieve this goal even more ambitious several tracks will be considered:
- creation of a standard with almost zero power consumption for functional buildings
- one progressive phase of oil and gas in the field of buildings
- the implementation of a new a more ambitious framework for the energy renovation of residential and functional buildings and the increased use of geothermal energy in this context
- A strengthened and diversified dynamic in the field of renewable energies
In matters ofrenewable energy, a target ranging from 23% to 25% by 2030 is included in the blueprint. As part of the new coalition agreement, the government underlines its determination to continue pursuing an ambitious policy and aims to accelerate the transition to 100% renewable energy.
The target for Luxembourg, according to the indicative benchmark contained in the EU Energy and Climate Change Governance Regulation, is around 23% renewable energy by 2030.
In this area, Efforts in the field of wind turbine development will be supported. In addition, an offensive will be launched in the photovoltaic field, based on the development of a "solar plan" and new tracks, such as geothermal, will be explored.. The scheme for photovoltaic promotion has just been improved.
Faced with the need to go as far as possible in the decarbonisation and in order to fulfill the climate ambition that the international community established through the Paris Agreement, Luxembourg wishes to continue to play a pioneering role. becoming a proactive player in the energy transition. According to the calculations made by the consortium, a minimum of 25% in renewable energy by 2030 is essential to ensure compatibility with the Paris Agreement.
- A plan that shapes the future: taking advantage of economic opportunities
The draft interim plan will have the potential to unleash significant potential to strengthen the connection between energy and climate policy on the one hand and economic development on the other. It will be necessary to ensure a smart and sustainable development of the country, in particular in the fields of environmental technologies, circular economy, mobility, climate action and digitization. In addition, against this backdrop, there will be a need to intensify research and development (R & D) and investment, particularly in favor of energy efficiency, to preserve and develop a modern industrial activity in the region. the forefront of technology.
The integrated national energy and climate plan will also have the potential to attract investment in innovative companies in. In addition, the plan will help to create the necessary credibility to help make Luxembourg a the world leader in investment funds in the fields of energy efficiency and renewable energy, as well as international climate finance to help structure the European and even global energy transition.
While the draft plan sets targets, expressed in intervals, as well as the framework of energy and climate policies by 2030, the final plan to be submitted to the European Commission by the end of December 2019 will include specific measures as provided for in the Coalition Agreement.
As part of the finalization of the plan, impact of its implementation will be addressed as required by the European Regulation. Thus, the Ministry of Energy and Spatial Planning and the Ministry of Environment, Climate and Sustainable Development will jointly carry out an analysis of the impacts of the integrated national plan together with the Ministry of Finance and the Ministry of Economy. This study will have to quantify the economic, budgetary and social effects related to it than the opportunities resulting from this, as well as Positive impacts of climate action on public health and the environment resulting therefrom.
It will also have to take into account the drastically lower cost of renewable energy in recent years and use a particular attention to the effects of the future Community regulatory framework laying down performance standards for CO2 for passenger cars and light commercial vehicles, as well as for heavy goods vehicles. These very stringent standards will have an impact on fuel sales. The study will analyze the implications mentioned above for budget planning for 2018-23.
- Extensive mobilization of the entire population and an expanded
As part of the national plan, the entire population is invited to participate in climate protection. The public consultation will be based on this integrated national plan project.
Municipalities, citizen movements such as the "climate pact" and the transition movement will play a vital role in the field of climate protection.
The aid scheme will be improved and expanded.
- Luxembourg assumes its responsibilities in the field of climate protection present a draft integrated national climate and energy plan and in line with the climatic emergency.
- O potential of energy efficiency and renewable energies is considerable. of offensive in the field of electromobility, the efficiency of functional buildings, photovoltaic energy and geothermal energy are foreseen.
- Short term efforts to reduce the sale and export of fuels are necessary.
- The necessary fuel export reductions will be less pronounced if the implementation of energy efficiency measures and the deployment of renewable energies at national level are further up.
- It is important to prepare for the inevitable effect of new and stricter CO2 emission standards for passenger cars and trucks the volume of sales / exports of fuels in Luxembourg.
- We should note the multiple economic, ecological and health opportunities of the energy transition and prepare today for a future without fossil fuels.
- The whole population is called to participate the challenge of climate protection.
- The financial aid scheme will be extended to help the population actively participate in the transition.