"Gifts" of the past: long palm muscle, hiccups, skin rushing


Evolutionism today is the basic theory of biology, but 160 years ago, when Charles Darwin announced his work on the origin of species, he was just a hypothesis – and yet he was not well adapted to a decent society.

For many years, society has been demanding evidence of strong Darwinian words and is not entirely satisfied with them. Although there was no need to look too much for the evolutionary theory of evolution, each person carries them in his body.

Blind Watch Errors

In Darwin's time, the most difficult mechanism was the stopwatch. Only a skilled master could build such a watch. So it seemed obvious to opponents of evolutionary theory that designing, designing, and "building" much more complex living organisms was also a necessary master. The explanations of some crazy Englishman that this was happening to themselves seemed to them the most absurd.

Unfortunately, the classic analogy between body and clock is not accurate. This is because our body structure is not as perfect as the work of Swiss watchmakers.

If the human body was created, it was a blind watchmaker, ironic scientists. After all, he incorporated a pile of pieces into the mechanism that are useless, and others that even interfere. The beauty and perfection of that evolution observer had no idea – he simply thwarted the random variations of the same "clock" without regret, rejecting the unsuccessful copies of the selection.

And yet, the result of his work is impressive. For about 4 billion years, he began to become a human being, beginning with the so-called primordial soup and semi-cellular prototype, an unreal complex with defects.

Although our eyes are often called the best natural breeding, cephalopod eyes, such as octopus, actually have fewer defects.

Running "screws"

To compare Homo sapiens the clock with the clock does not serve because the master seems to have placed both the barometer and the parts of the thermometer.

There are many rudimentary organs in our bodies that have long since lost their function. This is what the mental teeth with appendix: once they were needed to chew and dig foods rich in fiber, today they are giving people more trouble than they.

If you are strumming your fingers and bending your wrist, the tendon will almost certainly appear on the lower forearm. It is tightened by the long muscle of the palm, remaining only 86%. people.

For animals, this muscle gives you the chance to loosen your nails or get up, but you do not need it. Unless God will not allow it, there is a medical need: Doctors can remove and transplant the long palm muscle tissue where it is needed without compromising the strength or flexibility of the hand.

Most likely, this muscle will be full of time and will be completely rotten, as it has already – and is still happening with other unnecessary muscles. For example, the pyramidal abdominal muscle, with about 20% of the total body weight. humanity no longer has, although most other people have two.

Yarns collected

As with other mammals, 11 of the 12 cerebrospinal pores do not extend beyond the head. Only the 10th couple does not go out and feel the fibers, the lungs and even the intestines. That's why we call it a nomadic nerve.

When you fall on the nomadic nerve, the branched branch is also on the right side of the body in the bone and, on the left – in the arch of the aorta, it turns and returns to reach the throat.

If the electrician carried the wires, people twisted at his fingertips. But I do not care about evolution, so the signal from the brain to the strings of my voice is like a deviation. There is still a struggle for other mammals to have this even greater circumference: for example, for giraffes, its length is 4.5 m. And since 150 million The neck of the superheroes who lived on Earth for years was much larger than the giraffes, a distance of up to 28 meters, although in reality the brain and throat are only inches away.

Clutching the nerve to the throat is one of the greatest evils of evolution. In all our terrestrial animals, common ancestors who lived in the water, no nerve passed through the body. Directly from the brain, it branched along the six gills of the gills, just like in modern fish.

The human embryo still has gills, but as it develops from the final gills, the laryngeal tissue forms and the blood vessels that flow into them become powerful arteries of the heart, so that they descend well below the head . Thus, the nomadic nerve enters the artery of the aortic arch and there is nothing left to rise until it reaches the throat.

The octopus was lucky.

The large neurons of the optic nerve and the capillaries that feed them extend through the retina until they reach the receptors on their outer side. As light can penetrate through these nerves and blood vessels, its limbs are virtually overloaded.

However, at the point where the optic nerve exits the retina, there are no receptors, so at the center of our field of vision there is a small – about 1.5 mm in diameter – a blind spot.

This defective structure of the eye is characteristic not only of humans, but of all vertebrates, because we inherit the common ancestor.

A pilomotor reflex of animal riding helps them to freeze, and for us humans, this just gives the skin a strange look.

It is believed that photosensitive cells first appeared on the surface of animals' bodies – to help them orient themselves better in the environment. It is a total coincidence that nerves move from the outside to those cells, so they left a blind spot when they developed their eyes – allowing them to deepen in the body and become complicated. And everything could have happened the other way around. For example, the optic nerve of cephalopods reaches the retina not from outside, but from within, so that the blind spots do not form.

Fish or babies …

Irregular breathing in feeding, as well as the threat of asphyxiation or aggression, is a consequence of the evolutionary idea of ​​combining the upper respiratory tract and gastrointestinal tract. In the human body, they attach to the nasopharynx, so every time a piece of food passes through the throat, there is a threat of suffocation.

Our lung tissues developed from the bladder – filled with gas, allowed the primitive fish to regulate the buoyancy of the body (as, by the way, now). Primitive breathing is believed to require the air of primordial animals, and spasmodic muscle contractions have helped fill the bladder with gas or, on the contrary, remove excess air from the stomach.

It is possible that the hiccups are the same as emptying your stomach for babies, which are not yet perfectly coordinated with the individual breathing and swallowing processes. However, for adults, this is no more than a very nice reaction from the super perfect body.

Forgotten reflection

When a person is cold or scary, their skin is crushed – a pilomotor reflex is triggered.

Its name can be translated as "hair in movement": the vegetative nervous system signals a contraction of the smooth muscles that surround the hair follicles, and all the hairs of the body rest.

For many mammals, such a body reaction is very useful because it allows more warm air to remain in the hair during the cold, and appears to be larger and more threatening to a predator. Unfortunately, for people with long-lived dense body vegetation, the pilomotor reflex is like those rudimentary organs: they have no practical benefits.

Two in one

All of our closest relatives, from orangutans to chimpanzees, have 24 pairs of chromosomes and only humans – 23.

That's what happened, the genetic interpretation, is a total coincidence. In addition, we have the missing chromosome, just like us, with the other.

Chromosome 2 – the second largest – is the result of the fusion of two chromosomes. It still has a second but no longer works, rudimentary centromere and telomeric sequences (only in the middle of these spaced chromosomes, not on the margins when normal).

It is believed that the chromosomes are linked to the miocene – a period that began before 23.03 million. years ago and before 5,332 mill. separating the genome from the ancestor of the nearest primate chimpanzee.


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