An overreaction of the immune system has serious consequences, as it acts against its own cells. For example, the cororavirus enters the person through the nasal mucosa, the virus itself does not multiply, so it uses human cells, absorbs them and uses a cell proliferation machine and multiplies. After doing this, continue your journey to other bodies.
At that point, the protection of human immunity must be activated, the virus must be noticed by the interferons, they must announce that an attack has started and then a special unit must reach the affected area – dendritic cells that will scan the enemy and report it to the whole body. antibodies.
Then there are the killer cells that are supposed to kill the virus, the macrophages that will have to “collect the corpses” and there must still be neutrophils that “will make a fire” on the battlefield to see it piece by piece and everyone runs to that place .
At this stage, human temperature also increases. And if all of that works, the immune response to the virus will survive, even without serious consequences.
But if all of that doesn’t work, problems arise. Great danger – if alarms do not respond adequately or react slowly and reluctantly, the virus starts to spread from the beginning and is more difficult to overcome.
After the virus multiplies, the body can become confused about the size of the army it needs to fight all of this, and it can become oversized. In the language of the experts, cytokines are released at this point and, if there are many, it is called a storm of cytokines that begin to fight the virus in the lungs, then the alveoli of the lungs are flooded and there are very serious respiratory problems. pulmonary ventilation systems.
And its immunity reveals holes that cannot be predicted before the disease and that can already be individual for each patient – interferons do not work, which can also be a genetic problem, and the body can overproduce cytokines, which begin to be damaged.
Cytokine storms have been reported in other infections, but in critically ill patients with Covid-19.
There are studies on the link between this reaction and vitamin D deficiency, but this has not been fully confirmed by the World Health Organization.
When these reactions occur, an attempt is made to remove cytokines from the body. Latvia has these methods at its disposal, said Oleg Shuba, head of the Toxicology and Sepsis Clinic at Riga East Hospital.
And the danger of this virus is not just the ability to cause a storm and damage the lungs. If the immune system put the virus to sleep or does not deal with it quickly, the virus enters the blood vessels and conducts the enzymes that control blood clotting – blood clots faster, blood clots form, blood vessels are blocked, then blood does not circulate enough and life-threatening consequences can occur – lung failure or cardiorespiratory infarction or stroke.