Many sugary drinks have little or no nutritional value and many calories, and their harmful effects on health have been well documented. Now, one study links the consumption of many sugary drinks, and up to 100% of natural juices, with a higher risk of premature death.
Specifically, drink an excessive amount of fruit juice could lead to an increased risk of premature death ranging from 9% to 42%, according to the study, published on Friday in the journal JAMA Network Open.
In general, the sugars found in orange juice, although occur naturally, They are very similar to sugars added to soft drinks and other sugary drinks, suggests the study.
"Sugary drinks, be they soft drinks or fruit juices, should be limited"Jean A. Welsh, co-author of the study and an assistant professor in the Department of Pediatrics at Emory University in Atlanta, wrote in an e-mail.
Relation with cardiovascular diseases
Seven US cities, including New York and, most recently, Philadelphia, have applied sugar sweetened sugar duties in an effort to reduce consumption. These laws generally highlight how soda and other sugary drinks contribute to the epidemic of obesity among children and the high rates of diabetes among adults.
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The new study defined "sugary drinks" as thirsty sugar sweetened juices, such as infusions of fruit-flavored soft drinks and 100% natural fruit juices that have no added sugar. So How does fruit juice build up against refrigerant?
"Previous research has shown that a high intake of sugars, such as soft drinks and fruit juices, is linked to several risk factors for cardiovascular disease," explained Welsh. Obesity, diabetes and high triglycerides (a type of fat found in the blood) are among the risk factors associated with excessive sugar consumption. "Few studies could see how such consumption could affect the risk of mortality," he said.
To address this problem, she and her colleagues redirected data from the study "Reasons for Geographical and Racial Differences in Stroke," which seeks to understand why more African Americans die of spills than other races and why people in the Southeast have more spills than those in other areas of the United States.
From this multi-ethnic study, Welsh and his co-authors analyzed data from 13,440 adults over 45 years of age, almost 60% of men and almost 71% of them overweight or obese.
People who consumed 10% or more of their daily calories as sugary drinks had a 44% higher risk of dying from coronary heart disease and a 14% higher risk of premature death from any cause compared to people who consumed less than 5% of their daily calories as sugary drinks, the study showed.
Each additional 350 milliliters of fruit juice per day was associated with a 24% higher risk of death for any reason, and each additional 350 milliliters of sugary drinks per day was associated with an 11% higher risk. A similar relationship between sugary drinks and death from coronary heart disease was not found.
"By looking at our results from sugary drinks and juices independently, we should be clear that the risk presented is relative to the present in the lowest consumers of each," explained Welsh.
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I was not surprised by the findings. She and her co-authors said that "a number of possible biological mechanisms" explains the high risk of death. For example, research suggests that sugary drinks increase insulin resistance, which is known to increase the risk of cardiovascular disease, while fructose consumption can stimulate hormones that promote weight gain around the waist, another risk factor for disease cardiovascular.
Recommended amounts of fruit juice
This is one of the first studies examining the relationship between sugary drinks, including 100% fruit juices and premature death., wrote Marta Guasch-Ferré, a researcher at the Department of Nutrition at Harvard, School of Public Health T.H. Chan and Dr. Frank B. Hu, a professor of medicine at Harvard Medical School, in an editorial published along with the new study.
However, the study is limited in what it can tell us, noted Guasch-Ferré and Hu, who did not participate in the research. Since there were so few deaths related to coronary disease, the analysis here is considered weak; more time and more participants would probably give a stronger signal anyway. Besides that, the consumption of sugary drinks from each participant was recorded only at the beginning of the study, based entirely on self-information, which is not considered reliable.
"While fruit juices may not be as harmful as sugar-sweetened beverages, their consumption should be moderate in children and adults, especially in people who want to control their body weight, "wrote Guasch-Ferré and Hu.
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The recommendations for children between 1 and 6 years of age are to limit the consumption of fruit juice to 170 milliliters per day, while children 7 years of age or older, adolescents and adults should limit fruit juice to 230 milliliters per day, according to the American Academy of Pediatrics and Dietary Guidelines for Americans.
"More research is needed to examine the health risks and potential benefits of specific fruit juices," said Guasch-Ferré and Hu.
Welsh said that we should consider both fruit juices and sugary drinks when we think about the amount of sugar we consume each day. Between the two, he tipped the scales in favor of fruit juice: "Due to its vitamin and mineral content, fruit juice in small amounts can have a beneficial effect that is not seen in soft drinks and other sugary drinks".