The study of the microbioma, key to diseases such as allergies and diabetes


Posted 14/01/2019 10:48:05CET


A better understanding of the microbiome and its relationship to diseases such as allergies, diabetes, different tumors and even anxiety, autism or obesity could generate new tools for prevention and treatment, as well as knowledge and application of probiotics depending on the Microbiology and Health Association AMYS).

In recent years, "the human microbiome has become a new field of study that is evolving rapidly," said association president Ramon Cisterna. In that sense, it is necessary to delve into certain issues that "clarify the future of the impact of the microbiome on health and disease". These aspects include, for example, knowing the characteristics of the microbiome in relation to families to detect what is inheritable or not, as well as its secular composition to define what is lost or gained.

In the case of diseases with the highest incidence in recent years, such as childhood asthma, allergies, type 1 diabetes, obesity in inflammatory bowel disease and autism, the president of AMYS emphasizes the importance of assessing the role played by modifications of this organ in them.

Although there is a different microbiota depending on the organic spaces, such as the intestine, lung or skin, among others, the intestinal microbiome, that is, the set of microorganisms that reside in the intestinal tract along with its genes is the best known and most widespread.

In mammals, "the intestinal microbiota co-evolved along with its host to generate functions essential to its physiology," such as nutrient development, development and maturation of the immune system and strengthening of the intestinal barrier, explains the doctor.


Babies born normal, breastfed and without antibiotic treatment are great for the development of a suitable neonatal microbiota, explains Cisterna. At the end of the first year, the microbiota is different according to each child, but between two and a half years and three years shows a composition similar to that of the adult.

Each human being maintains a specific and variable microbiota throughout life. The microbial composition at birth is relatively simple, mature and evolves due to the influence of various factors such as the environment and physiological aspects such as nutrition, lifestyle, hormonal changes, immunity and possibly the existence of several axes of interrelationship as the intestinal brain or the skin of the intestine. In adults, the intestinal microbiota is stable over time.


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