The Large Hadron Collider has been closed and will remain inactive for two years while they perform important updates



[ad_1]

The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is getting a big boost for its performance. Unfortunately, for fans of groundbreaking physics, the whole thing has to be shut down for two years while the work is done. However, when it's back and working, its enhanced features will make it even more powerful.

The essence of the Large Hadron Collider is to accelerate the particles and then direct them to collide with each other in the chambers. Cameras and detectors are trained in these collisions and the results are monitored in minute detail. It is about discovering new particles and new reactions between particles and observing how the particles decompose.

This shutdown is called Long Shutdown 2 (LS2.) The first shutdown was LS1, and occurred between 2013 and 2015. During LS1, collider power has been improved as well as its detection capabilities. The same will happen during LS2, when engineers will reinforce and upgrade the entire accelerator complex and detectors. The work is in preparation for the next LHC race, which will begin in 2021. It is also to prepare for a project called the LHC high-luminosity project, which begins in 2025.

A look inside ALICE at the Large Hadron Collider. ALICE is one of four LHC particle detectors. Image: CERN / LHC
A look inside ALICE at the Large Hadron Collider. ALICE is one of four LHC particle detectors. Image: CERN / LHC

The series of experiments performed between LS1 and LS2 is called the second run and went from 2015 to 2018. This run produced some impressive results and a ton of data still to be worked on. According to CERN, the second generation produced 16 million billion proton-proton collisions at an energy of 13 TeV (tera-electron-volts) and large data sets for lead-collision with an energy of 5.02 TeV. That means there's the equivalent of 1,000 years of streaming 24/7 video stored in the CERN data file.

"The second race of the LHC was impressive …" – Frédérick Bordry, Director of Accelerators and Technology at CERN.

The huge data pool of the experiments during the second LHC race outperforms the data from the first race, all because the collider's energy level was nearly doubled to 13 TeV. It becomes increasingly difficult to raise the energy level of a collider, and this second shutdown will see the power increased from 13 TeV to 14 TeV.

"The second performance of the LHC was impressive because we were able to deliver far beyond our goals and expectations, producing five times more data than during the first race, with unprecedented 13 TeV energy," said Frédérick Bordry, director of CERN. and Technology. "With this second long shutdown from now on, we will prepare the machine for even more collisions in the design energy of 14 TeV."

By all measures, the LHC has been a success. For several decades, the existence of the Higgs boson and the Higgs field was the central question of physics. But the technology and engineering needed to build a collider powerful enough to find it simply were not available. The construction of the LHC enabled the discovery of the Higgs boson in 2012.

"The Higgs boson is a special particle …" – Fabiola Gianotti, general director of CERN.

"In addition to many other beautiful results, in recent years, the LHC experiments have made tremendous progress in understanding the properties of the Higgs boson," adds Fabiola Gianotti, general director of CERN. "The Higgs boson is a special particle, very different from the other elementary particles observed so far; its properties can provide useful insights about physics beyond the Standard Model. "

The discovery of the Higgs boson long ago theorized is the greatest achievement of lhc, but not its only. Many parts of the Standard Model of Physics were difficult to test before the LHC was built. Hundreds of scientific papers have been published on the results of the LHC, and some new particles have been discovered, including the exotic pentaquarks and a new particle with two heavy quarks, called "Xicc ++."

Among the findings of the Large Hadron Collider are the
Among the findings of the Large Hadron Collider is the so-called "Xicc ++", a particle with two heavy quarks. Image: CERN

After the updates to LS2, the third execution will start. One of the third execution projects is the High-Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) project. Brightness is one of two major considerations in collisions. The first is the voltage, which is being improved from 13 TeV to 14 TeV during LS2. The other is the luminosity.

Luminosity means a greater number of collisions and hence more data. Since many of the things that physicists want to observe are very rare, more collisions increase the chances of seeing them. During 2017, the LHC produced about three million Higgs bosons per year, while the high-brightness LHC will produce at least 15 million Higgs bosons per year. This is important because although it was a great achievement to detect the Higgs boson, there are still many physicists who do not know about the elusive particle. By fivefold the number of Higgs bosons produced, physicists will learn a great deal.

One of the huge dipole magnets of the Great Hadron Collider was replaced during Long Shutdown 1. Image Credit: CERN / Anna Pantelia
One of the huge dipole magnets of the Large Hadron Collider being replaced during Long Shutdown 1. Image credit: CERN / Anna Pantelia

"The rich harvest of the second race allows researchers to look for very rare processes." – Eckhard Elsen, Director of Research and Computing at CERN.

All data stored in CERN from the second execution of the LHC will mean that the physicists will be kept busy during LS2. There may be hidden things in this huge collection of data that no one has seen yet. There will be no rest for the greedy army of particle physicists of mankind.

"The rich harvest of the second race allows researchers to look for very rare processes," said Eckhard Elsen, director of Research and Computing at CERN. "They will be busy during the entire shutdown by examining the huge sample data for possible signatures of new physics that have not had a chance to emerge from the dominant contribution of the Standard Model processes. This will guide us to the HL-LHC when the data sample increases by another order of magnitude. "

[ad_2]

Source link