HIV transmission from mother to child has been reduced in recent years, so much so that the number of cases has been negligible in Mendoza.
As shown in the last report of the Provincial AIDS Program, O The rate of cases reported in 2018 was nil. The same happened in 2016. In 2015 and 2017 it was 0.3%, followed by 1.2% in 2010, 0.8% in 2011 and 1.1% in 2012. In 2013 and 2014 there was a slight resumption with indicators of 1.4% and 1.3% respectively.
They warn that the vertical transmission was minimized, a hard core hard to break, according to the opinion Lisandro Soriano, head of the Epidemiological Observatory of the area.
He explained that this this does not imply that there are no cases, but they are few and do not reach the impact on the indicator, given the high proportion of those transmitted by other means.: users of injectable and sexually transmitted drugs (97.7% of cases in 2018). "It's invisible to others," he said, adding that "it's not that there's less, it's too low."
Soriano explained that the decline began a few decades ago. First in the early 1990s, when a protocol was implemented to detect the virus in pregnant women, when it became widespread, the decline continued into the 2000s. Since 2010, it has been smaller and relatively constant.
He warned that it is a question of considering how many children of HIV-infected mothers acquire the virus. This proportion is currently around 2.5% of an average of 60 births per year.
"We are at a very low percentage and it is very difficult to change, it has reached a point where, although there are cases, they refer to very specific situations in which it is very difficult for public policies to have an impact," he said.
There are three times when vertical transmission of the virus can occur: during pregnancy, during childbirth or during breastfeeding.
Silvia Attorri, Head of Infectious Diseases, Hospital de LagomaggioreThe largest maternity hospital in the province has agreed that the cases are very few. "Of the children of the patients (with HIV) we monitored, none of them had a positive result," he said. Soriano commented that In general, when they are detected during pregnancy, babies tend to be negative.
Proper medical examinations are essential to avoid affecting the baby. In this way, the presence of the virus can be detected, if possible as early as possible, and indicate the treatment.
The good detection and effectiveness of these were indicated by Attorri as the other element that benefited the good results. "The mother hits the virus, not detectable in the blood and the transplacental transfer is practically zero," he said.
Meanwhile, Gladys Ferreyra, head of Neonatology at the same hospital, emphasized: "If they make a good treatment, the percentages of contagion are very low, between 1 and 2%."
He added that because there is a relationship between sexually transmitted diseases and diagnoses, prenatal control is very influential. This, given that in some cases they arrive with few controls to the work, without knowing that they have the virus and that is where it is detected. It is in this case when the transmission to the baby occurs in most cases. When it is identified, it is a question of reducing risks with cesarean section.
Infection occurs "usually in late diagnoses during pregnancy, mothers with low adherence to treatment, which are scarce, but usually associated with addictions or vulnerability, although they were diagnosed, do not take the medication," explained Atorri.
How to avoid it
If the pregnant woman is found to have a positive HIV burden, she is anti-retroviral After birth We will have to inhibit breastfeeding and continue with the treatment.
The baby receives three first tests (PCR) that should be negative: at 48 hours of birth, one month and between two and three months.
Finally, must be confirmed one year and a half of life, which is when the child's own antibodies can be detected.