There is a local and international consensus on the enormous increase experienced by allergic diseases in recent decades. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that by 2050 approximately half the world's population will suffer at least some allergic disorder. At Durand Hospital, the percentage of consultations has increased almost by almost a few years by almost 100%, and already reaches almost 8,000 consultations per year.
Allergies are mechanisms of the body's exaggerated immune response (hypersensitivity) to different environmental allergens, food, medicines, etc. Depending on the type of allergy, different diagnostic tests are performed. In serum, the antibody (immunoglobulin E), which is the most important marker of a person's allergy levels, is measured. There are also other important complementary studies, such as different skin tests (pressure tests, intradermalations, contact tests) and oral challenge tests that are used especially for food or medicines.
The scope of the city does not escape the worldwide trend of a higher incidence of respiratory and dermatological allergy. As chronic pathologies, the symptoms of allergic rhinosinusitis clearly predominate and, to a lesser extent, asthma and dermatitis (eczema and urticaria). Approximately 40% of the urban population has symptoms of rhinitis at some point and about 15% have a history of having or having had episodes of asthma.
Early in the fall, it is inevitable to refer to the aggravation of the respiratory symptoms that allergic patients usually present. At this moment, many viruses circulate and there is overlap of colds and the known allergic rhinitis, which generates a marked worsening of these images. In addition, sudden changes in temperature and humidity are factors that aggravate climatic conditions.
Allergic rhinitis, often associated with sinusitis, is very common, given the connection of the entire upper and lower airway, episodes of asthma are also more frequent. In autumn and winter bronchospasms are increased by viral catarrh, so is cough, a very prevalent symptom, and both symptoms may be facilitated by an allergic basis. In times like autumn and spring, to a lesser extent in winter as well, there is a high incidence of allergy to mites, in this period and especially in urban areas the fungal spore allergens increase.
When autumn begins we close doors and windows and the air passes through ventilation tubes and air conditioning. When the regulation between temperature and humidity is not adequate, there is condensation of the water inside the ducts, which serves as a reservoir for the proliferation of bacteria and fungi. Even when there is no air conditioning, simply closing the windows gives the interior adequate conditions for the proliferation of mites, which need temperate temperatures and a certain degree of humidity.
Sometimes the symptoms of an allergy are usually confused with a common cold, whenever there is fever, one suspects a viral image. The typical symptoms of allergy are nasal pruritus, ocular and sneezing, and in the common cold intense nasal congestion and thick mucus. However, they can be present indistinctly in both tables.
There may be people who do not suffer from allergy, but, anyway, there are individuals who have a genetic (non-dominant) allergic tendency and do not express it. This is why symptoms can be triggered virtually at any point in life.
In addition, to treat an allergy, in addition to taking antihistamines, a correct diagnosis should be made to establish specific treatments and preventive strategies. In an integral biological context, a healthy lifestyle adjustment is required: balanced diet, control of environmental exposure to allergens, management of chronic stress, treatment of hormonal dysfunctions, etc.
Age is one of the factors that may be prone to suffer from allergies; in childhood, allergic responses seem clearer, due to the genetic basis of the predisposition.. Children tend to develop respiratory and skin conditions that can be stabilized with development and, of course, with appropriate treatments. But it should be borne in mind that any condition in adult life, including the reduction of defenses or other symptoms, resorts to or appears to be an allergic phenomenon.
The hospitals in Buenos Aires that belong to the Allergy and Asthma Network are: Álvarez, Argerich, Durand, Elizalde, Fernández, Gutiérrez, Penna, Piñero, Pirovano, Ramos Mejia, Rivadavia and Santojanni. .